Gaurav Tyagi1, Patricia Dang1, Ioana Pasca2, Reena Patel1, Ramdas G. Pai1
Divisions of 1Cardiology and 2Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California, USA
Background and aim of the study: Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is an increasingly common echocardiographic finding, yet the clinical and biological behavior and rate of progression of the condition are unknown.
Methods: A total of 254 patients was identified from the authors’ echocardiographic database with DMS, defined as severe mitral annular calcification with extension into the mitral leaflets resulting in transmitral flow acceleration with a mean diastolic gradient of >2 mmHg in the absence of commissural fusion. Each patient required paired echocardiograms to have been recorded at least three months apart. Clinical, biochemical and pharmacological data were collected from each patient and related to the annualized rate of increase in mean diastolic mitral gradient and stenosis severity on a scale of 0 to 3.
Results: The characteristics of the patients were as follows: mean age 71 ± 15 years; female gender 73%; and left ventricular ejection fraction 66 ± 13%.
Diabetes was present in 50% of patients, renal insufficiency in 40%, and coronary artery disease in 50%. Over a follow up period of 2.6 ± 2.2 years, the mean gradient was increased by 0.8 ± 2.4 mmHg (range: 0-15 mmHg) per year, while the stenosis grade was increased by 0.18 ± 0.5 (range: 0-3) per year. The rate of progression was faster in patients with lesser degrees of stenosis (p = 0.01) and low serum albumen levels (p = 0.04), and slower in those receiving beta-blockers (p = 0.01). Milder stenosis, diabetes mellitus and lack of beta-blocker use were independent predictors of faster DMS progression.
Conclusion: DMS progression is highly variable, but generally slow; its progression is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus, but is retarded by beta-blocker use. DMS may be an active biological process offering potentially modifiable targets for intervention.
The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2014;23:707-712
|Progression of Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: Insights From a Cohort of 254 Patients|
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