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You are here: Contents > 2016 > Volume 25 Number 1 January 2016 > TRICUSPID VALVE DISEASE > The Double-Orifice Valve Technique to Treat Tricuspid Valve Incompetence

The Double-Orifice Valve Technique to Treat Tricuspid Valve Incompetence

Roland Hetzer, Mariano Javier, Eva Maria Delmo Walter

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Background and aim of the study: A straightforward tricuspid valve (TV) repair technique was used to treat either moderate or severe functional (normal valve with dilated annulus) or for primary/organic (Ebstein’s anomaly, leaflet retraction/tethering and chordal malposition/tethering, with annular dilatation) TV incompetence, and its long-term outcome assessed.

Methods: A double-orifice valve technique was employed in 91 patients (mean age 52.6 ± 23.2 years; median age 56 years; range: 0.6-82 years) with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Among the patients, three had post-transplant iatrogenic chordal rupture, five had infective endocarditis, 11 had mitral valve insufficiency, 23 had Ebstein’s anomaly, and 47 had isolated severe TV incompetence. The basic principle was to reduce the distance between the coapting leaflets, wherein the most mobile leaflet could coapt to the opposite leaflet, by creating two orifices, ensuring valve competence. The TV repair was performed through a median sternotomy or right anterior thoracotomy in the fifth intercostal space under cardiopulmonary bypass. The degree and extent of creating a double-valve orifice was determined by considering the minimal body surface area (BSA)-related acceptable TV diameter. Repair was accomplished by passing pledgeted mattress sutures from the middle of the true anterior annulus to a spot on the opposite septal annulus, located approximately two-thirds of the length of the septal annulus to avoid injury to the bundle of His. The annular apposition divides the TV into a larger anterior

and a smaller posterior orifices, enabling valve closure, on both sides. In adults, the diameter of the anterior valve orifice should be 23-25 mm, and the posterior orifice 15-18 mm; thus, the total valve orifice area is 5-6 cm2. In children, the total valve orifice should be a standard deviation of 1.7 mm for a BSA of <1. 0m2, and 1.5 mm for a BSA of >1.0m2.

Results: During a mean follow up of 8.7 ± 1.34 years (median 10 years; range: 1.5-25.9 years) there have been no reoperations for TV insufficiency or stenosis. Reoperations on three patients (mean age 42.5 ± 8.7 years) were indicated for aortic valve replacement at 14 months postoperatively (n = 1) and for assist device implantation (n = 2) who eventually underwent heart transplant at 18 and 20 months after TV repair, respectively. The cumulative 12-year survival rate was 86.9%.

Conclusion: This double-orifice technique is technically a straightforward repair to abolish TV incompetence with highly satisfactory results, particularly in patients with severe annular dilatation or with leaflet and chordal tethering. In the present series, the technique provided no pitfalls (if the location of the conduction system was borne in mind), requiring only a gentle placement of sutures. It also led to no residual regurgitation or reoperation during the follow up period.

The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2015;24:66-71

The Double-Orifice Valve Technique to Treat Tricuspid Valve Incompetence

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