Alejandra Rodriguez-Hernandez1, Maria Elena Soto1,2, Jesus Vargas-Barron1, Ricardo Marquez1, Rafael Bojalil-Parra1, Israel Perez-Torres1, Jose Luis Salas-Pacheco1, Valentin Jimenez-Rojas1, Jose Antonio Arias-Godinez1, Veronica Guarner-Lans1
1Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chavez Juan Badiano No. 1, Col. Sección XVI, Delegación Tlalpan, C.P. 14080, Zona de Hospitales de Tlalpan, Distrito Federal, Mexico
Background and aim of the study: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the inflammatory response in patients with aortic and/or mitral prostheses, and to correlate the level of inflammatory markers with prosthesis functionality.
Methods: A total of 48 patients with biological or mechanical prostheses was included in the study, in which levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, -4, and -6, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), osteopontin (OPN), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), endothelin-1 and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Functionality of the prosthesis was evaluated using transthoracic echocardiography at three years after surgery.
Results: The mean period from the date of surgery was seven years. High levels of IL-1 were found in patients with mechanical prostheses compared to those with bioprostheses (p = 0.04). Patients with aortic bioprostheses and stenosis had higher levels of OPN and endothelin-1, those with aortic mechanical prostheses
with stenosis had increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, OPN and ICAM, and those with aortic mechanical leakage had increased levels of MMP-1 and endothelin-1. In mitral bioprostheses with leakage of endothelin-1, ICAM and MMP-9 levels were increased, while in mechanical prostheses with leakage there were increases of ICAM and endothelin-1. Tricuspid bioprostheses with double lesions had increased levels of OPN and endothelin-1.
Conclusion: Valvular dysfunction was similar across the types of prosthesis material. IL-1 was increased in subjects with mechanical prostheses independently of dysfunction, while in biological prostheses there were increases in OPN and endothelin-1, and these were related to valvular dysfunction. Given that in the analysis of durability and functionality there were no significant differences between biological and mechanical prostheses, biological prostheses may represent the first treatment option in patients with low economic resources, the elderly, and even young patients.
The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2017;26:334-343
|Immunologic Responses in Biological and Mechanical Valve Prostheses: Inflammation and Functionality Are Not Always Related|
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