Dror Ben Leviner1, Benjamin Medalion1, Inbal Baruch1, Alex Sagie2, Erez Sharoni1, Avi Fuks1, Dan Aravot1, Ram Sharony1
Departments of 1Cardiothoracic Surgery and 2Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tiqva, Israel
Background and aim of the study: Tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) is considered a high-risk operation. The study aim was to analyze the authors’ eight-year experience with TVR and to characterize the specific risk factors for this operation.
Methods: Between January 2005 and August 2012, a total of 67 patients (46 females, 21 males; mean age 58 ± 14 years; range: 25-86 years) underwent TVR at the authors’ center. Re-do operations were performed in 48 patients (72%), including 37 patients (55%) who had at least two previous surgeries. Isolated TVR was performed in 28 patients (42%). The follow up (mean 28 months) included echocardiography and survival analysis.
Results: The overall operative mortality was 17.9% (n = 12, all female). In the latter half of the study period, mortality declined to 11.4% (p = NS). Major postoperative morbidity included prolonged mechanical ventilation (28.4%), low cardiac output (29.8%), and acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis (10.4%). Univariate analysis revealed that female gender (p = 0.007), NYHA class (p = 0.038), serum bilirubin level (p = 0.02) and number of
previous cardiac surgeries (p = 0.05) were associated with increased operative mortality. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that reoperation (OR 6.06, p = 0.036) was an independent risk factor for operative mortality or complications. Echocardiography at follow up showed that 92.6% of all patients had tricuspid regurgitation grade <2. The overall five-year survival rates for males and females were 82% and 53%, respectively (p = 0.03), but five-year survival for operative survivors was similar in males and females (82% versus 73%, p = 0.5). Cox regression analysis showed that age (OR 1.07, p = 0.028) and reoperation (OR 6.1, p = 0.038) were independent risk factors for late mortality.
Conclusion: TVR remains a high-risk operation, particularly for advanced age and previously operated patients; however, the long-term survival is satisfactory. Typically, women undergo TVR at an older age with a higher mortality rate than men. However, the long-term mortality rate of patients who survived surgery was not associated with gender.
The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2014;23:209-215
|Tricuspid Valve Replacement: The Effect of Gender on Operative Results|
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