Marina Leitman1,4,5, Vladimir Tyomkin1, Ehud Raanani2,4, Ram Sharony3,4, Ludmila Tzatskin1, Eli Peleg1,4, Alex Blatt1,4, Zvi Vered1,4
1Department of Cardiology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel
Background and aim of the study: Acute severe mitral regurgitation (MR) is a serious medical condition. Whilst clear guidelines exist regarding the management of chronic MR, acute severe MR is usually treated on an individual basis. Currently, few data exist regarding acute MR in the era of primary coronary interventions (PCI). The present study included patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology during recent years with acute severe MR of different etiologies, and an analysis of these data in the light of previous investigations.
Methods: The digital database of the present authors’ hospital was searched for patients diagnosed with severe MR between 2008 and 2015. From a total of 228 patients identified, 19 with primary MR and 17 with secondary (functional) MR were admitted to the Department of Cardiology. The clinical data and outcome of these patients were analyzed.
Results: Among patients with MR due to acute myocardial
infarction (MI), 13 had functional MR and six had MR due to mechanical complications, namely rupture of the papillary muscle or chordae tendineae. Among patients with MR not in the setting of MI, 13 had primary MR and four had functional MR. Patients with MR due to acute MI were more often in cardiogenic shock or had pulmonary edema and had a higher mortality. The strongest predictor of mortality was the presence of shock, followed by female gender, hypertension, age ≥68 years; previous MI and pulmonary edema were also predictors of mortality. In patients with acute MI and secondary MR, PCI to the culprit coronary artery was associated with a lesser degree of MR on follow up.
Conclusion: Patients with severe MR are at high risk of in-hospital death. Patients with functional MR are likely to benefit from prompt PCI to the culprit artery, and for those with primary MR urgent surgery is life-saving.
The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2017;26:161-168
|Assessment and Management of Acute Severe Mitral Regurgitation in the Intensive Care Unit|
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