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You are here: Contents > 2014 > Volume 23 Number 4 July 2014 > AORTIC VALVE DISEASE > Valvuloplasty with a Paclitaxel-Eluting Balloon Prevents Restenosis in an Experimental Animal Model of Aortic Stenosis

Valvuloplasty with a Paclitaxel-Eluting Balloon Prevents Restenosis in an Experimental Animal Model of Aortic Stenosis

Konstantinos Spargias1, Mariann Gyöngyösi2, Rayyan Hemetsberger2, Aniko Posa2, Noemi Pavo2, Imre J. Pavo2, Kurt Huber3, Zsolt Petrasi4, Ors Petnehazy4, Rembert Pogge von Strandmann5, Jeffrey Park6, Dietmar Glogar2, Gerald Maurer2, Nalini M. Rajamannan6

1Department of Transcatheter Heart Valves, Hygeia Hospital, Athens, Greece, 2Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria, 3Wilhelminen Hospital, Vienna, Austria, 4University of Kaposvar, Hungary, 5Eurocor GmbH, Bonn, Germany, 6Fienber Cardiovascular Institute, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago Illinois, USA

Background and aim of the study: Restenosis occurs invariably within 12 months following balloon valvuloplasty (BAV) in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), and is a limiting factor of this treatment. Cellular proliferation secondary to balloon injury is thought to play a pivotal role in the mechanism of restenosis. The study aim was to investigate the potential role of a paclitaxel-eluting valvuloplasty balloon to mitigate the progression of restenosis in an animal model of CAVD.

Methods: Fifty-three rabbits were fed with an aortic stenosis (AS)-inducing diet (cholesterol 0.5% plus vitamin D3 50,000 IU/day) for three months. The surviving animals (n = 40) underwent echocardiographic and invasive assessments, followed by valvuloplasty, randomly using either a paclitaxel-coated (3 μg/mm2) or a plain balloon. At one month after BAV, the surviving animals (n = 28) underwent repeat assessments, followed by histology and micro-computed tomography (MicroCT) analysis of the aortic valve.

Results: The baseline and post-BAV transvalvular gradients,

aortic valve area (AVA), left ventricular stroke work loss (SWL) and aortic valve resistance (AVR) were similar between the groups (14 rabbits were assigned to paclitaxel-eluting, and 14 to plain balloon). Significant differences between the groups

were observed at one-month post-BAV, which was suggestive of diminished restenosis in the paclitaxel-balloon group (mean maximum transvalvular pressure gradient 7.7 ± 7.7 versus 3.6 ± 3.7 mmHg, p = 0.08; AVA 0.91 ± 0.59 versus 0.55 ± 0.22 cm2, p = 0.04; SWL 3.5 ± 4.0 versus 8.6 ± 8.0%, p = 0.047; AVR 86 ± 71 versus 177 ± 137 dynes/s/cm-5, p = 0.039). Histology demonstrated decreased leaflet thickness (0.60 ± 0.15 versus 0.71 ± 0.17 mm, p = 0.03), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining (grade 1.53 ± 0.04 versus 2.24 ± 0.55, p = 0.049), and calcification in the paclitaxel-balloon group.

Conclusion: Use of a paclitaxel-eluting valvuloplasty balloon in an animal model of AS resulted in attenuated restenosis, secondary to decrease in valve proliferation and calcification.

The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2014;23:484-491

Valvuloplasty with a Paclitaxel-Eluting Balloon Prevents Restenosis in an Experimental Animal Model of Aortic Stenosis

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