Rahul Vasudev1,2, Priyank Shah1, Supreet Kaur1, Chandrika Chitturi1, Sundermurthy Yamini1, Ashesha Mechineni1, Chandra Chandran1, Mahesh Bikkina1, Fayez Shamoon11New York Medical College at St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center, Paterson, New Jersey, USA
2Electronic correspondence: email@example.com
Background and aim of the study: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study aim was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, microbiological and inpatient mortality data of IE in hemodialysis patients.
Methods: Data were analyzed for all IE patients admitted to the authors’ 800-bed tertiary care hospital between January 2001 and December 2014. These data included demographics, comorbidities, clinical and microbiological characteristics, echocardiographic findings, complications, outcomes, and in-patient mortality.
Results: A total of 296 patients, including 52 on hemodialysis, was admitted with a diagnosis of IE. The median age of patients with ESRD (28 females, 24 males) was 55.9 ± 15.47 years. The prevalences of comorbidities such as hypertension (80%) and diabetes mellitus (46%) were significantly higher in ESRD patients, whereas other comorbidities were similarly distributed in both groups. The mitral valve was the most commonly involved (55.8%), followed by aortic (21.7%), tricuspid (21.2%)
and pulmonary (1.9%) valves. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism (40%), followed by Enterococcus sp. (13.7%), Gram-negative staphylococci (13.7%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11.5%), and Streptococcus sp. (5.7%). Polymicrobes were found in 11.5% of patients and cultures were negative in 19%. The mean ejection fraction in these patients was 42 ± 4.19% and the mean area of vegetation was 63.5 ± 40 mm2. The in-hospital course of 11 patients was complicated by embolic events, while three patients had acute heart failure and one patient had heart block secondary to IE. A total of four patients (7.7%) died during the index hospitalization.
Conclusion: IE in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis is a very frequent occurrence. Its diagnosis is complex and its presence should be considered in all hemodialysis patients with bacteremia. In the present study the etiology was shown to be multifactorial, with the mitral valve being the most commonly involved and S. aureus the most common organism.
The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2016;25:369-374
|Infective Endocarditis in Hemodialysis Patients|
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