Sabina P. W. Guenther1,3, Maximilian A. Pichlmaier1, Erik Bagaev1, Florian Herrmann1, René Schramm1, Steffen Massberg2, Christian Hagl1, Nawid Khaladj11Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany
2Medical Department I (Cardiology), University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany
3Electronic correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and aim of the study: Currently, the use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is constantly increasing, whilst cardiosurgical back-up varies substantially. Besides immediate conversion to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for periprocedural complications, SAVR for TAV failure may be necessary within the early or late post-implant course. The etiology, incidence, risk-stratification, management and outcome for both scenarios are largely unclear. The study aim was to provide details of the authors’ experience of SAVR after the failure of TAVI at a single institution.
Methods: Nineteen patients (14 males, five females) underwent SAVR after TAVI at the authors’ institution between June 2008 and December 2015. The patients’ initial EuroSCORE II was 8.54 ± 9.81. In eight cases (42%; 50% transfemoral) an immediate conversion was necessary due to paravalvular leakage and insufficiency (n = 1), valve-malpositioning (n = 1), valve dislocation (n = 3), valve-trapping in mitral chordae (n = 1), and annular rupture (n = 2). The 50% transfemoral EuroSCORE II was 19.06 ± 8.61. In 11 patients transcatheter valve failure occurred at a mean of 18 ± 17 months after TAVI (two patients with structural valve failure and one with severe paravalvular leakage, seven with prosthetic valve endocarditis, and one patient with aortic aneurysm); the mean EuroSCORE II was 13.42 ± 13.06.
Results: For immediate conversion, the cardiopulmonary
bypass (CPB) time and aortic cross-clamp time were 104 ± 40 min and 60 ± 16 min, respectively. Concomitant procedures were necessary in two patients, one patient required hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and one died intraoperatively. For early and late failure, the CPB and cross-clamp times were 115 ± 32 min and 82 ± 20 min, respectively. HCA was necessary in one patient, and concomitant procedures in seven patients. The 30-day survival was 63% for immediate SAVR and 100% for early and late SAVR, even though one more patient died on postoperative day 31 after immediate SAVR. Besides, the longest follow up periods were 29 ± 15 months and 19 ± 14 months for immediate and early/late failure, respectively. In both groups, one patient died from cardiovascular-related causes, and one from non-valve-related causes.
Conclusion: SAVR after previous TAVI will become increasingly relevant. Due to the increasing use of TAVI in medium- or lower-risk patients, adequate strategies must be established since, in comparison to multimorbid patients, not taking action in these patients is not an option. Due to potentially high-risk patients and unique technical implications, SAVR after TAVI differs from conventional (redo) AVR. Under optimal conditions, acceptable survival rates can be achieved, but effective interdisciplinary approaches are essential.
The Journal of Heart Valve Disease 2016;25:557-567
|Immediate, Early and Late Failure after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: How to Deal with the Inoperable?|
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